Global Entrepreneurship Index- Sierra Leone 132/137

The Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI) is a composite indicator of the health of the entrepreneurship ecosystem in a given country. The entrepreneurship ecosystem is the important factor here. I have written several pieces in this newspaper advocating for a vibrant entrepreneurship ecosystem in Sierra Leone.

“Entrepreneurship is the answer to the vexing economic questions facing Africa today: job creation, capital formation, skills acquisition, taxation-based self-sufficiency, quality of governance-demand, and of course social inclusion”. (HBR Blog. 1:03 PM March 5, 2012).

“Entrepreneurs improve economies and people’s lives by creating jobs, developing new solutions to problems, creating technology that improves efficiency, and exchanging ideas globally. Many of the conditions that help entrepreneurs also help the economy as a whole, providing even broader gains from supporting entrepreneurship”. GEI

What is also clear is that not all entrepreneurship is necessarily beneficial. In Sierra Leone, for far too long, Rent Seeking entrepreneurship has dominated. This type of entrepreneurship by and large does not create jobs or grow the economy.(I wrote an article on this in 2017)

In order for entrepreneurship and innovation to play the crucial in creating jobs and growing our economy, we need to develop value creating  and high growth entrepreneurs.

HOWEVER, without an Entrepreneurship Ecosystem that supports value creating  and high growth entrepreneurs, this promise we will not be fulfilled.

The Global Entrepreneurship Index measures 14 components in an entrepreneurship ecosystem. That we are  5th from bottom is not a surprise, since we have a weak to non-existent entrepreneurship ecosystem. The GEI measures both the quality of entrepreneurship and the extent and depth of the supporting entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Data collected for the 14 components are used to calculate three levels of scores for a given country: the overall GEI score, scores for Individuals and Institutions, and pillar level scores (which measure the quality of each of our 14 components).

I will take you through all 14 of the components and what they measure.

Component What it measures
Component 1: Opportunity Perception


Can the population identify opportunities to start a business and does the institutional environment make it possible to act on those opportunities?


Component 2 : Startup Skills


Does the population have the skills necessary to start a business based on their own perceptions and the availability of tertiary education?


Component 3 : Risk Acceptance


Are individuals willing to take the risk of starting a business? Is the environment relatively low risk or do unstable institutions add additional risk to starting a business?


Component 4 :Networking


Do entrepreneurs know each other and how geographically concentrated are their networks?


Component 5 :Cultural Support


How does the country view entrepreneurship? Is it easy to choose entrepreneurship or does corruption make entrepreneurship difficult relative to other career paths?
Component 6 : Opportunity Start up


Are entrepreneurs motivated by opportunity rather than necessity and does governance make the choice to be an entrepreneur easy?


Component 8 : Human Capital


Are entrepreneurs highly educated, well trained in business and able to move freely in the labor market?


Component 9 : Competition


Are entrepreneurs creating unique products and services and able to enter the market with them?
Component 10 : Product Innovation


Are entrepreneurs creating unique products and services and able to enter the market with them?


Component 11 : Process Innovation


Do businesses use new technology and are they able access high quality human capital in STEM fields?


Component 12 :High Growth


Do businesses intend to grow and have the strategic capacity to achieve this growth?


Component 13 : Internationalization


Do entrepreneurs want to enter global markets and is the economy complex enough to produce ideas that are valuable globally?


Component 14 : Risk Capital


Is capital available from both individual and institutional investors?


Our scores

Sierra Leone global rank is 132/137. Our strongest area is Product Innovation and our Weakest area is Start-up skills.

Overall GEI score is 12%.On the individual score, Sierra Leone scored 57% on entrepreneurial qualities of the people in the ecosystem. To underscore my previous articles on ecosystem, Sierra Leone scored only 25% on the quality of institutions that support entrepreneurship. Botswana, for example, scored 48% on institutional support. There is a strong correlation between a high score on quality of institutions, the job creation and economic growth through entrepreneurship activities.

Sierra Leone compares to Botswana at 34.9- the leader in sub-Sahara Africa. The bottom country in sub-Sahara Africa is Chad with a score of 9.0.

United States, Switzerland, Canada, UK and Australia are the top 5 with 83.6,80.4,79.2,77.8 and 75.5 respectively.

Sub-Saharan Africa’s greatest strength is in the area of Opportunity Perception. Entrepreneurs in the region are able to spot opportunities around them for starting businesses. The region’s lowest average scores are in the areas of Start-up Skills, Risk Acceptance and Risk Capital.

Tertiary education is not as broadly accessible as in other regions, and entrepreneurial skills are less common. The general risk climate is not as favourable in the region as in other areas, and the capital availability lags behind other regions.

There is significant opportunity for improvement, however, as Sub-Saharan Africa can look to the examples of regional leaders Botswana and South Africa. Both countries demonstrate the possibility for great change and substantial improvement on relatively short time scales. Further, the region has a few clear bottlenecks which, if addressed, could quickly yield overall improvements in entrepreneurial ecosystems and the economy as a whole.

The Global Picture

Globally, for 2018 the most significant improvement over 2017 is we’ve seen a 22% increase in Product Innovation scores since the 2017 GEI, and an 11% increase in Start-up Skills scores since the 2017 GEI. This suggests that the global population is becoming more educated and identifying more opportunities to create new products.

The Asia-Pacific region shows greatest strength in Human Capital and Product Innovation – on average, countries in the Asia-Pacific region have highly educated populations that are well trained in business and able to move freely in the labor market. They are also producing products that are new to customers and integrating new technology.

European nations post high average scores on Start-up Skills, owing to a legacy of broadly available tertiary education and a populace that largely possesses the skills necessary to start a business. The region’s biggest weakness is in Networking, though it still scores above the global average in this area. Overall, Europe’s scores are relatively balanced across all components of the GEI, suggesting that a broader mix of policy is likely to have a larger impact on overall performance than focusing on single policy area might.

The MENA region shows greatest strength in the areas of Product Innovation and Risk Capital. The region is bringing new products to market and integrating new technology, while also providing the capital to help businesses grow. The region’s lowest average scores are in the areas of Competition and Risk Acceptance, as large firms dominate many economies in the region and businesses face higher risks in many MENA countries than in other areas.

The US and Canada drive most high average regional scores for North America, while Mexico contributes top scores in the area of Networking. The region’s overall greatest strengths are in Opportunity Perception and Product Innovation – the region’s population is able to spot and act on good opportunities for starting a business, and is able to bring new products to market and integrate new technology. The region struggles most in the area of High Growth – an indication that entrepreneurs in North America are not as motivated to grow and scale their businesses as their other component scores would suggest.

The South/Central America and the Caribbean region scores highest on average on Startup Skills and Product Innovation. Entrepreneurs benefit from broadly available tertiary education and a high levels of business skill. They are also creating products that are new to markets and integrating new technology into their businesses.

In my next piece, I will discuss what can be done to improve the components of the entrepreneurship ecosystem.

This piece was published in the AYV newspaper 9/01/2018

Francis Stevens George

-Act Managing Director, Global Entrepreneurship Network Sierra Leone

-Founder & CEO Innovation SL,

Tel: 232 (0) 77 05 1821

Building the Entrepreneurial Eco System in Sierra Leone Part II

In July, I wrote a paper on why we need to build an entrepreneurial  ecosystem in Sierra Leone to support a new breed of entrepreneurs. In that paper I discussed rent seeking vs value creating entrepreneurship. I argued that we need to build an ecosystem in Sierra Leone that supports the value creating entrepreneurs.

In this follow up, I am going to discuss entrepreneurial ecosystem and high growth firms.  I will also look at why Government and its donor partners needs to shift policy towards supporting high growth entrepreneurs in Sierra Leone. For this policy shift to take place and be successful, we have to move away from top-down interventions towards bottom-up interventions. Research has shown that in many cases, the top-down approach is focused on framework conditions.

In Sierra Leone, it is clear that increasing the number of new business is the policy objective.  My experience is that just focusing efforts on increasing the number of new firms is not a good policy, because very few will achieve significant growth.

If we look at other parts of the world and in some parts of Africa-Kenya and Ghana- many start-up programmes are now concentrating their support efforts on high-growth start-ups. This reflects the growing acceptance that not all start-ups are of equal ‘economic value’.

First, let me borrow from an OECD report, a comparison between Traditional Enterprise policies and Growth-oriented enterprise policies. This will give the reader a clearer picture of what I mean by High Growth Firms.

Traditional Enterprise Policies Growth-Oriented Enterprise Policies
Main unit of focus is on specific actors, such as individuals, entrepreneurs, geographic clusters of firms Main unit of focus is on specific types of entrepreneurs, networks of entrepreneurs or ‘temporary’ clusters
Policy objectives is to generate more entrepreneurs and grow more new ventures Policy objective is to focus on the high potential or ‘blockbuster entrepreneurs’ with the largest economic potential
Policy actors are targeted by specific focused interventions aimed at parts of entrepreneurial systems (i.e. non-systemic) Policy is targeted at connecting components within ecosystems to enable the system to better function (i.e. systemic)
Main forms of assistance are ‘transactional’ forms of support such as grants, tax incentives, subsidies etc. Main forms of assistance are ‘relational’ forms of support such as network building, developing connections between entrepreneurial actors, institutional alignment of priorities, fostering peer-based interactions
Main push by policy makers is to generate and promote entrepreneurial sources of finance aimed at start-ups, particularly in the form of venture capital and business angel funding Recognition that different businesses have different funding requirements such as debt finance, peer to peer, crowdfunding etc. As businesses grow and upscale different firms require access to a ‘funding escalator’ and ‘cocktails’ of different funding sources
The generation of new firm-based intellectual property and innovation was seen as vitally important. The focus was very much on R&D and the protection of intellectual property rights. Focus on developing innovation systems and fostering connections with customers, end users, suppliers, universities etc. Increasing recognition of unprotected and ‘open’ sources of innovation. Innovation is porous transcending many sectors and industries – both new and traditional
The level of policy making is mostly ‘top down’. The implementation of policy is mostly undertaken at national level but some initiatives are devolved. The bulk of systemic policies are enacted at the regional or local level. Multi-scalar policy frameworks are emerging.

* Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Growth Oriented Entrepreneurship. OECD. Prof Colin Mason and Dr. Ross Brown

From the above, it becomes clear that the focus of the donors and Government has to shift from companies, start-ups to support the ecosystem. In other words, we move to a more system based- holistic- forms of support rather than the current company specific. This calls for supporting networks that work with entrepreneurs, fostering synergies between the different players and building new institutional capabilities. For example, to support incubators, accelerators, tech hubs and science parks. For the record, we have only one tech hub/co working space -Sensi Tech Hub –  in the entire country!

Presently  donor organisations working in the entrepreneurship/SME space use their time and resources “searching” for start-ups, SMEs to provide training and other forms of support to. This may not only be misguided, but in the long run, will bear no result. Indeed, the fact is, there are very few start-ups in Sierra Leone that have the potential to scale. And this may be due to the lack of an entrepreneurial ecosystem that they can tap into.

We face unprecedented opportunities for value creating entrepreneurs and innovators to transform this country. These opportunities come under- Demographic dividend, Digital disruptions, Agtech, The Circular Economy, and Social Entrepreneurship.

The demographic dividend means we have 50% of population have the potential to be productive and contribute to our economy. Demographic dividend, as defined by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) means, “the economic growth potential that can result from shifts in a population’s age structure, mainly when the share of the working-age population (15 to 64) is larger than the non-working-age share of the population (14 and younger, and 65 and older).”

In Sierra Leone we have 50% (3,5million) of the population between the ages of 15-54 years. We have another 40% between the age of 0-14 years. This will be a boost in economic productivity if we can turn them into active economic agents.

Sierra Leone, through high growth, value creating entrepreneurship has the potential to reap this demographic dividend.

Digital disruption is the change that occurs when new digital technologies and business models affect the value proposition of existing goods and services. We see fintech disrupting the provision of financial services, creating opportunities for start-ups.

Digital globalization has opened the door to developing countries, to small companies and start-ups, and to billions of individuals. Tens of millions of small and midsize enterprises worldwide have turned themselves into exporters by joining e-commerce marketplaces such as Alibaba and Amazon. The main factors preventing Sierra Leone enterprise to take advantage of digital globalization, is the poor  and expensive internet service, and an entrepreneurial ecosystem that would provide the kind of services to such enterprises.

Agriculture accounts for 58% of our GDP, employing 80% of our population. Yet agriculture productivity is low and the dollar contribution to GDP is disproportionate. In other countries, due to the use of technology productivity in agriculture is increasing.

Agtech is agricultural software, services, farming techniques, aimed at bringing more data and efficiency to the sector. This sector has attracted interest from tech investors and account for 30% of the 129million dollars that was invested in African startups in 2016. Sierra Leone is ripe for agtech to transform the sector. We already have the likes of Melvin Foday Kamara designing machines to increase agriculture productivity.

A circular economy addresses mounting resource-related challenges for business and economies, and could generate growth, create jobs, and reduce environmental impacts, including carbon emissions.

The circular economy’s potential for innovation, job creation and economic development is huge: estimates indicate a trillion-dollar opportunity.

In Sierra Leone, we have an opportunity to create new businesses and jobs through recycling, waste management and collaborative consumption.

Imagine the collection and processing of plastic waste to finish products or energy can create thousands of jobs. We have a start-up already collecting plastic waste and transforming them into pavement tiles.

Social entrepreneurship offers an altruistic form of entrepreneurship that focuses on the benefits that society may reap. Simply put, entrepreneurship becomes a social endeavor when it transforms social capital in a way that affects society positively. With so many challenges in this country, social entrepreneurs can develop innovative solutions and mobilize available resources to affect the greater society.

There are several advantages of social entrepreneurship. Of particular relevance to Sierra Leone is that it provides employment opportunities and job training to segments of society at an employment disadvantage (long-term unemployed, disabled, homeless, at-risk youth and gender-discriminated women). The example of Grameen and the economic situation of six million disadvantaged women micro-entrepreneurs were improved.

HOWEVER, without an Entrepreneurship Ecosystem that supports value creating and high growth entrepreneurs, we will miss these opportunities.

The term ecosystem was originally coined by James Moore writing in the Harvard Business Review in the 1990s. He asserted that businesses don’t evolve in a ‘vacuum’ and noted the relationally embedded nature of how firms interact with suppliers, customers and financiers.

Since them academics and experts have argued convincedly that  in dynamic ecosystems new firms have better opportunities to grow, and create employment, compared with firms created in other locations.

This also echoes the argument of Bathelt et al (2004) that wider global linkages – beyond those connecting firms to product markets – play an important role in the development of entrepreneurial ecosystems. They argue that as well as engaging in localised learning, firms also seek to build channels of communication with selected external partners to access more specialized knowledge and assets not available locally. These so-called global pipelines are seen as being particularly important in the early stages of ecosystem formation, providing access to markets, resources and knowledge before a critical mass is available locally.

This is part of the work the organisation I lead is focusing on. I am responsible for expanding collaboration among Sierra Leone’s entrepreneurship ecosystem leaders and connecting them to their counterparts in more than 170 countries.

There is also another compelling reason why we should direct efforts to building an ecosystem. Foreign tech investors are attractive to African countries with a very strong entrepreneurial ecosystem. The likes of Zukkerberg, Bill Gates, Serge Brine, all are active investors in the tech space in Africa.

In 2016, more than 129 million dollars went into African start-ups. 146 start-ups raised investment, an increase of 17 percent from 2017.Those start-ups that attractive investments have strong entrepreneurial ecosystem to support them.

Further, SeedStars World’s index revealed the correlation between the strength of countries’ entrepreneurial ecosystem and national GDP: The three countries with the highest scoring entrepreneurial ecosystems – South Africa, Kenya, and Rwanda – all exhibit higher than average GDP per capita.

In conclusion, it is my professional opinion that until we direct our efforts to supporting networks that work with entrepreneurs, fostering synergies between the different players and building new institutional capabilities, we will fail to capitalise on the potential of entrepreneurs and innovators to transform our economy, our society and people.

Towards building an Entrepreneurship Ecosystem- Global Entrepreneurship Week and Freetown Pitch Night-The Role and Significance of the Freetown Pitch Night

From November 13th to the November 17th the world, including Sierra Leone, will celebrate the Global Entrepreneurship Week. Global Entrepreneurship Week is the world’s largest celebration of the innovators and job creators who launch start-ups that bring ideas to life, drive economic growth and expand human welfare.

During one week of every November, GEW inspires people everywhere through local, national and global activities designed to help them take the next step in their entrepreneurial journey. These activities, from large-scale competitions and events to intimate networking gatherings, connect participants to potential collaborators, mentors and even investors – introducing them to new possibilities and exciting opportunities.

In Sierra Leone, GEN SL and Innovation SL as National Hosts have organised several activities to inform and inspire.  The highlight of the week is the GEW 2017 Freetown Pitch Competition. The finals will see a winner – GEW Sierra Leone Entrepreneur attend the Global Entrepreneurship Congress.

As much as this prize is important, it is the role of the Freetown Pitch and its significance in building an entrepreneurship ecosystem in Sierra Leone that is the subject of this paper. Click the link below to read or download the paper.